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EVALUATION OF THE DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF FIRE-PERFORMANCE CABLE PROTOTYPES. THE FIRST RESULTS

Abstract. The fire-resistant power cable models were manufactured, containing two overlapping mica tapes of type A or type B and extruded fire-retardant PVC or silane-crosslinked polyethylene insulation. Models were subjected to the following tests:

determination of short-term dielectric strength at 780 0C by means of application of 1 kV during 1 hour with the subsequent voltage increase at a rate of 150 V/min;

measurement of electrical «life curve» (for models with crosslinked polyethylene insulation only). Both tests exhibited higher dielectric strength of models containing A-type mica tapes.

Key words: fire resistant cable, model, mica tape, high temperature, dielectric strength, «life curve».


OPTIMIZATION OF MULTILAYER HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING CABLES FOR DEMAGNETIZATION SYSTEMS

Abstract. The creation of a high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) demagnetization system allows the significant weight savings compared to conventional demagnetization systems based on copper coils. The dominant costs in HTSC systems are the cost of HTSC materials. Since the cable of the demagnetization system works with a slowly changing field and optimization is not required to reduce losses on alternating current, to increase its operating current, you can use the longitudinal magnetic field effect, due to which the current of the HTSC tape in a magnetic field parallel to the current can significantly increase. We carried out optimization of HTSC cables for system windings taking into account the effect of a longitudinal magnetic field. It is shown that this will lead to an additional decrease in the mass of the superconductor. To check the estimates of the mass of the HTSC demagnetization windings, this paper presents the created and tested model of the demagnetization system for small objects.

Key words: HTSC cable, demagnetization, longitudinal magnetic field.


LIFETIME OF OPTICAL CABLES. ANALYSIS. RISKS

Abstract. The traditional indicators (gamma-percent and assigned service life) and criteria (physical and moral wear) of cable durability are considered. A new criterion of durability for optical fiber cables (OC) of the Russian information infrastructure has been introduced - the disproportionate risk of loss of network connectivity. The critical importance of setting parameters of the ultimate state of OC in the normative legal documentation is shown. Theoretical models of the “aging” of optical fibers and cables are presented. Measures to ensure the durability of OC are proposed and a conclusion is drawn on the need to audit OC during operation.

Key words: optical fiber, optical fiber cable, lifetime, limit state, communication network, failure rate, audit.


TRANSITION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING TAPES TO THE NORMAL STATE UNDER THE EXPOSURE TO MAGNETIC FIELD PULSES

Abstract. The processes of SuperOx second generation high temperature superconducting tapes (2G HTS) transition from the superconducting state to the normal state under the exposure to magnetic field pulses of about 80 msec duration were investigated. During the test a transport current of 81–89 A, close in value to the tape critical current Ic = 83 А, was applied to the superconducting tape at a temperature of 77 K.

Then the HTSC tape was subjected to magnetic field pulses of various amplitudes from 0.25 TL to 1.75 TL with a duration of 80 msec. The influence of the initial transport current value and the amplitude of the applied magnetic field on the HTSC tape transition to the normal state and back to the initial superconducting state was studied. The transition process modelling demonstrated a close agreement of the test data and the calculation results. The obtained data make it possible to solve problems related to the development of high-speed switching devices based on high temperature superconducting tapes designed for operation in superconducting energy storage devices, energy distribution and transmission systems, current limiters and new types of modern transportation.   

Key words: high temperature superconductors (HTSC-conductors); HTSC tapes; magnetic field pulses; transition to the normal stateе.


TRIAXIAL CABLE MADE OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH TWO LAYERS PER PHASE

Abstract. Three-phase triaxial high-temperature superconducting power cables have the advantages of compactness, high overall current density and reduced number of superconducting tapes, compared to conventional superconducting cables, where each phase consists of a separate coaxial cable. Earlier, the prototypes of superconducting triaxial cables were developed and tested at VNIIKP, with one layer of high-temperature superconducting tapes of either the first or the second generation in each phase. To increase the power of a triaxial high-temperature superconducting cable, a multi-layer design of each phase is proposed. We developed and tested the prototype triaxial cable with two layers of second-generation high-temperature superconducting tapes in each phase. Optimized cable parameters were determined using numerical simulation. Cable tests at alternating current were carried out at frequencies from ~ 50 to ~ 400 Hz. The paper presents the parameters of the cable and the results of its first tests.

Key words: HTSC-cable; triaxial HTSC-cable.


DEVELOPMENT AND LAUNCHING INTO MANUFACTURE OF HIGH-VOLTAGE BUSHINGS WITH RIN-INSULATION 

Abstract. The article deals with the issue of moistening of high-voltage bushing RIN-insulation. Experimental data of frequency dependence of dry and moistened insulation are presented, RIN-insulation nonsusceptibility to moistening is proved by experiments, RIN-insulation manufacturing technology is described, and promising application prospects for bushings with insulation of filled compound are confirmed.  

Key words: high-voltage bushing, RIN-insulation, insulation moistening, dielectric loss tangent, high-voltage tests, launching into manufacture, frequency dependence of tgδ.


PROCESSES OF TRANSITION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING TAPES INTO THE RESISTIVE STATE UNDER THE EXPOSURE TO SHORT CURRENT PULSES

Abstract. The authors present the results of the processes of 2G high-temperature superconducting tape transition into the resistive state under the exposure to current pulses. The test was carried out with short pulses of 50 to 250 µs duration and pulse rise time of about 1 µs. The pulse amplitude varied within the range of (0,1−3,5) Is  from the superconductor critical current value Is.  A stable current flow with amplitudes above three-fold critical current without degradation of the superconductor state under pulse current flow was observed. The modes of the superconductor stable transition under pulse current were determined. The test results were analyzed based on the model of dynamic resistance in the current flow mode.  

Key words: high-temperature superconductor (HTSC), HTSC-tapes, short current pulses, critical current, transition.


ABOUT THE QUALITY OF FLAME RETARDANT AND LOW SMOKE PVC COMPOUNDS USED IN THE DOMESTIC CABLE INDUSTRY

Abstract. The production development of flame retardant and low smoke PVC compounds and НГ-LS cables is described. The use of these cable versions enabled the improvement of fire safety of cable installations in nuclear power plants, underground railway and manufacturing facilities. It is shown that due to the growing use of cables in all sectors of economy the production output of flame retardant and low smoke PVC compounds increased up to 30 % of the total volume of the applied cable compounds; however, the quality of PVC compounds decreased. 

The “Anticounterfeit” committee of the Electrocable Association implements a comprehensive set of measures aimed at stabilizing the quality of PVC compounds. A national normative base for PVC compound production is being formed in the form of GOST R and a “roadmap” for the quality improvement of flame retardant and low smoke PVC compounds and НГ-LS cable versions has been agreed.

Key words: fires in electrical installations, polyvinylchloride compounds, flammability, smoke emission, thermal ageing, roadmap, quality, national standard.


PROBLEMS OF FIGHTING AGAINST PRODUCTION AND USE OF COUNTERFEIT CABLE PRODUCTS

Abstract. The problems of fighting against production and circulation of counterfeit cable products are discussed. The active role of the Electrocable Association in mass revealing of non-compliance and submission of corresponding materials to the government supervisory authorities (Rosstandart, Rosacreditation. Rospotrebnadzor) is shown. The Association proposals are reflected in the documents of the State Commission for combating illegal turnover of industrial products, in the instructions of the RF Government on conducting unscheduled inspections of test centers, certification bodies and cable manufacturers. Agreements for cooperation and inspections with regional authorities were signed.

Key words: cable, counterfeit products, certificate, Electrocable Association.


SUPERCONDUCTING WIRES FOR THE FAIR ACCELERATOR FACILITY FAST-CYCLING MAGNETS

Abstract. This paper presents the stages and results of the development of a new class of low-loss superconducting NbTi wires intended for use in the windings of fast-cycling magnets of the FAIR accelerator, which is currently under construction in Germany at the Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt). The properties of single and double assembly wires in a pure copper matrix are considered, as well as in combined Cu/Cu-Ni and Cu/Cu-Mn matrices. The characteristics of industrially produced wires are presented, on the basis of which model fast-cycling magnets are fabricated.

Key words: FAIR accelerator, fast-cycling magnets, superconducting NbTi wires, low energy losses.


THERMAL AGEING RESISTANCE OF MEDIUM-VOLTAGE CABLES WITH CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE INSULATION. TESTS AND INVESTIGATIONS

Abstract. The results are presented of the study of XLPE insulated medium voltage cable thermal ageing. Full scale samples were aged in an oven at 130 0C during one year and then at 150 0C during 1000 hours. The 50 Hz breakdown voltages were measured for cables as manufactured, after 6 months, 12 months and in the end of thermal ageing test period. The decrease of the breakdown voltage Ubr level approximately corresponds to that of the two-year CENELEC wet ageing test. Different working hypotheses related to the mechanism of Ubr decrease are evaluated. Localized thermal oxidation is considered as the most probable process responsible for the Ubr diminishing. The oxidation is concentrated in thin insulation layers adjacent to the semiconducting screens and in the vicinity of microscopic technological defects, such as gels. The quantitative level of thermal oxidation was evaluated by means of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

Key words: medium voltage cable, cross-linked polyethylene, thermal ageing, breakdown voltage, local thermal oxidation, FTIR microspectroscopy.


IMPROVEMENT OF POLYIMIDE-FLUOROPLASTIC FILM INSULATED WINDING WIRE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Abstract. A qualitative model for the calculation of optimal conditions of polyimide-fluoroplastic film insulated winding wire production was developed based on the analysis of the technology components of this complicated process. The model can be used to calculate the key technology details with the description of their impact on the qualitative characteristics of wires and physical and chemical processes taking place during wire production.

Key words: polyimide-fluoroplastic film (PFF), PFF-film processing technology, film-insulated winding wire manufacturing technology, calculation of winding conditions.


BREAKING THE ENERGY BLOCKADE OF LENINGRAD

Abstract. The article provides information about the situation in Leningrad at the beginning of the

blockade in general, and in the energy of the city in particular. The measures taken by the city leadership

and the Leningrad Front to provide it with electricity are described. It is described in detail how underwater cable lines of 10 kV were laid through Ladozhsky Lake for transfer to Leningrad from the Volkhovsky HPP.

Key words: blockade, Leningrad, Volhovskaya HPP, cable, Lenenergo, Ladozhsky Lake, diver, power transmission.


IDENTIFICATION OF THE CAUSE OF FAILURE IN SERVICE AND REMAINING LIFE ASSESSMENT FOR A LOW VOLTAGE POLYETHYLENE INSULATED CABLE

Abstract. The possible origin of the low voltage cable PE insulation cracking is considered; the cable has been 5 years in operation. The analytical methods used are as follows: DSC, FTIR, visual light microscopy, photomicrography, and photomacrography. In addition, insulated conductors were tested in surface- active substance at elevated temperature. The data obtained permit to conclude that neither oxidation, nor rearrangement of supramolecular structure are responsible for premature failure. It is concluded that installation work is the only reason of the damage. The residual life time estimation, based on cracking criteria, equals to 40 years.

Key words: PE insulation, crack, DSC, FTIR, visual microscopy, photomicrography, photo-macrography, oxidation, recrystallization.


PHYSICAL BASIS OF EXPLOSIVE GASEOUS OR DUST ATMOSPHERE EXPLOSION INITIATED BY ELECTRICAL CABLES

Abstract. The formula for calculating the risk of damage caused by an explosion of gas or dust atmosphere in hazardous areas at industrial sites has been examined. The analysis of international electrotechnical vocabularies and regulatory documentation relating to electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres has demonstrated that by assessing the risk of explosion in hazardous areas of industrial production sites, it is important to consider the likelihood of explosions of gas or dust atmospheres caused by electrical cables for external electrical circuits. The physical basis of explosive atmospheres ignition probability during the operation of cables for external electrical circuits has been analyzed and the formula for calculating the risk of damage caused by explosion of gas or dust atmospheres in hazardous areas at industrial sites has been revised, taking into account the probability of an explosion caused by electrical cables for external electrical circuits.

Key words: risk, probability, explosive atmosphere, explosion initiation, electrical cables for external electrical circuits, exhaustive events.


THE NATURE OF CHANGES OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTHS IN THE SURROUNDING OF LOW-VOLTAGE THREE-PHASE CABLES

Abstract. The behavior of magnetic field strengths in the external environment is shown, and the analytical expressions for the determination of their maximum values are given to be used in further estimation of their permissibility under electromagnetic safety and compatibility conditions.

Key words: low-voltage three-phase cables, magnetic field strength, electric power supply system, electromagnetic safety and compatibility.


INSTALLATION OF 500 kV CABLE LINES WITH POLYETHYLENE INSULATED CABLES AT BUREISKAYA HEP, ZAGORSKAYA PSPP, BOGUCHANSKAYA HEP, 500 kV AERIAL CABLE LINE “ZAPADNAYA” SUBSTATION – “OCHAKOVO” SUBSTATION

Abstract. 500 kV cable lines (CL) with polyethylene insulated cables have been installed in Russia since 2004. Designing, installation and testing of such cable lines are associated with some specific features. The article presents the generalized experience of installation of 500 kV cable lines with polyethylene insulated cables at Bureiskaya HEP, Zagorskaya PSPP, Boguchanskaya HEP, 500 kV aerial cable line “Zapadnaya” substation – “Ochakovo” substation.         

Key words: 500 kV cable lines, 500 kV polyethylene insulated cables, installation of 500 kV cable lines.


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF 20 and 35 kV HEAT-SHRINKABLE TERMINATIONS AND JOINTS

Abstract. The article presents the basic results of OJSC VNIIKP and JSC “MZEI” joint investigations of materials and design development of accessories for 35 kV XLPE cables. 

Consideration is given to the compliance of the developed joints and terminations with the requirements of the state standard and the PAO FGC UES (Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System) standards.

Key words: terminations; joints; power cable accessories; partial discharges; tracking resistance; climatic tests.


HEAT EXCHANGE IN CABLE PENETRATIONSUNDER A LONG-TERM PERMISSIBLE LOAD CURRENT

Abstract. A mathematical model of heat transfer in cable penetrations under a long-term permissible load current is proposed. A comparison of numerical and experimental values of temperature and time dependences under current load for various structures of cable penetrations is made. Numerical values of temperature fields under a current load for a cable laid in the air, as well as in three typical cable penetrations, are obtained. The regularities of temperature changes in the cable passage structural elements with time are revealed. The most dangerous type of cable penetration is determined, for which the time values of thermal damage to the cable and the occurrence of a short circuit are estimated. Calculations of long-term permissible load currents for samples of the considered cable penetrations are made.

Key words: cable penetrations; cables; fire hazard; electrical safety; heat exchange; long-term permissible load current; numerical modeling.


THE USE OF OPTICAL FIBER SPLITTERS IN TELECOM NETWORKS WITH WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

Abstract. The article deals with the types and parameters of optical fiber splitters which serve as a connecting link for optical cables when the telecom networks are built. An experimental investigation of spectral characteristics of FBT (Fused Biconical Taper) and PLC (Planar Lightwave Circuit) splitters was carried out. The measurement results of planar optical splitters confirm that their characteristics in the 1260–1660 nm spectral range correspond to the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The test results prove that FBT type splitters with certain design parameters also correspond to the ITU recommendations and can be used in wavelength multiplex systems of CWDM, DWDM type and for the construction of passive optical networks (PON).

Key words: optical telecommunication networks; optical fiber; optical splitters; fusion (FBT) optical splitters; passive optical networks (PON); wavelength multiplex systems; spectral characteristics of optical splitters.


INSTALLATION OF 500 kV CABLE LINES WITH POLYETHYLENE INSULATED CABLES AT BUREISKAYA HEP, ZAGORSKAYA PSPP, BOGUCHANSKAYA HEP, 500 kV AERIAL CABLE LINE “ZAPADNAYA” SUBSTATION – “OCHAKOVO” SUBSTATION

Abstract. 500 kV cable lines (CL) with polyethylene insulated cables have been installed in Russia since 2004. Designing, installation and testing of such cable lines are associated with some specific features. The article presents the generalized experience of installation of 500 kV cable lines with polyethylene insulated cables at Bureiskaya HEP, Zagorskaya PSPP, Boguchanskaya HEP, 500 kV aerial cable line “Zapadnaya” substation – “Ochakovo” substation.         

Key words: 500 kV cable lines, 500 kV polyethylene insulated cables, installation of 500 kV cable lines.


SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF OPTICAL CABLE LINES

Abstract. This article presents the calculation results of joint oscillations of optical cables suspended on poles. Poles are considered as support beams with distributed parameters, subjected to transverse vibrations under the action of inertia forces during the soil displacement at the attachment point. After the calculation of the system response to the seismic impact in the form of acceleration or soil displacement it was possible to find the amplitudes of displacement and acceleration at the attachment points of optical cables suspended on poles.

Key words: overhead lines of optical communication cables, joint oscillations of conductors and transmission poles, dynamic interaction, vibration frequency calculation.


SPECIFICS OF CABLE INSTALLATION IN STRUCTURED CABLING SYSTEMS

Abstract. The paper addresses the issue of different constructions of cables for structured cabling systems (LAN cables) and RJ-45 connectors of different categories, as well as compatibility of LAN cables and connectors.

Key words: cable for structured cabling systems (LAN cable), structured cabling systems (SCS), installation, connector, RJ-45, TERA.


POTENTIAL INCREASE OF HTSC CABLE CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY DUE TO THE LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECT

Abstract. This paper analyzes the possibility of using the longitudinal magnetic field effect in cables based on HTS tapes in order to increase their current carrying capacity. Measurements of the critical current anisotropy of HTSC tapes are carried out and optimization calculations of superconducting cables using the influence of a longitudinal magnetic field are performed.

Key words: HTSC cable, HTSC tape, longitudinal magnetic field effect, critical current angular dependences, critical current anisotropy, cable current carrying capacity.


INFLUENCE OF THE CONDUCTOR SURFACE STATE ON THE TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS OF HIGH-FREQUENCY CABLES

Abstract. It is theoretically and experimentally proved that the influence of non-conducting, electrically conducting and semiconducting films, formed on the conductor surface due to potential extreme operation conditions, on the transmission parameters of high-frequency coaxial and symmetrical cables should be taken into account. Necessary explanations are given to confirm the validity of the conclusion and applicability of the calculated dependences used to determine, in particular, the attenuation constant of cables depending on the properties of the conductor surface coating. The results obtained may be used to evaluate changes of the parameters of special cables, including fire-resistant ones, when working in extreme conditions.

Key words: high-frequency coaxial and symmetrical cables, attenuation constant, semiconducting surface layer.


DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF CABLE INDUSTRY IN SOUTHEASTERN COUNTRIES OF ASIA (Session of the General Assembly of AWCCA 2020)

Abstract. The article presents a review of the session of the General Assembly of the Asian Wire & Cable Industry Cooperation Alliance (AWCCA). The state of the cable industry in China, Malaysia and Indonesia before the coronavirus pandemic, its influence on the industry and the development prospects are discussed.

Key words: cable industry of China, Malaysia and Indonesia, SECRI, General Assembly of AWCCA, Malaysian Cable Manufacturers Association (МСМА), International Copper Association (ICA).


CABLE INDUSTRY UNDER PANDEMIC CONDITIONS. RESULTS OF 2020

Abstract. The main performance results of the Electrocable Association companies in 2020 under the coronavirus pandemic conditions are analyzed.  The dynamics of production volumes of the basic cable and wire nomenclature groups is presented.

Key words: dynamics of cable and wire production volumes, energy wire and cable production, OEM wire and cable production, telecommunication wire and cable production, transport wire and cable production.


SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION OF CABLES FOR THE SPACEWIRE STANDARD

Abstract. The article deals with the results of development of symmetrical twisted-pair cables used for on-board systems, first of all for space distribution systems operating according to the SpaceWire standard. Specific features and unique character of the developed cables are associated with the special combination of their design, applied materials and manufacturing technology. Due to small size and mass per unit length these cables may be used for high-speed and high-stability LVDS systems of differential signal transmission which operate under the critical aerospace conditions on board of aircrafts.

The SpaceWire standard characteristic and basic aspects are presented, the design, critical parameters and principles of measurement of the developed cables are considered, the main production stages and some novel technological operations and equipment used in research and development work are described.

Key words: symmetrical cables, pair twisting, data transmission, aerospace, on-board systems, LVDS (low voltage differential signaling), SpaceWire, technology, jitter.


REVIEW OF PROCEDURES TO OVERCOME SPURIOUS EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF RF COMMUNICATION CABLES

Abstract. With the advance of multigigabit data rate communications needed to sustain the ultra-high bandwidth of Internet of things (IoT), the electrical characterization of cables is becoming paramount. These cables must comply with international standards that not only set RF parameter limits but also define measurement procedures.

These measurements can be done either in the frequency or time domain. Using Fourier transformation allows converting from one representation to the other.

Nevertheless, one of the main challenges is to isolate the DUT (Device Under Test), the cable in our case, from the rest of the measurement environment in order to get its intrinsic characteristics. As a matter of fact, the DUT is connected to the ATE (Automatic Test Equipment) via interfaces with their own frequency response that must be removed from the DUT itself. Additionally, at high frequency, the measurement is becoming extremely sensitive to the way the operator is connecting the DUT on the ATE, with parasitic effects that directly impact the accuracy and/or precision of the measurement (repeatability/reproducibility).

Key words: transmission lines, impedance, return loss, vector network analyzer, data cable, S-parameters, S11 – the ratio of the reflected voltage wave to the incident voltage wave.


2020. SITUATION IN THE CABLE INDUSTRY

Abstract. The article highlights the results of the 77th general meeting of the Electrocable Association. A review of the reports made is presented.

Key words: the 77th general meeting of the Electrocable Association, cable industry 2020 performance results, analysis of the Russian optical fiber market, counterfeit cable products.   


RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN THE MIRROR OF GLOBAL TRENDS

Abstract. The article examines the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the world economy and the Russian economy. One of the emerging demographic trends is the falling birth rate, which may have a significant impact on the economic growth rates in the future after the end of the pandemic. Closer attention is being observed to the global warming trends, which may intensify the development of renewable energy sources and have a negative effect on the Russian sources of export revenues. Significant changes in the national economic policy become imminent. 

The article is based on the report made at the general meeting of Electrocable Association in March 2021, Moscow region.

Key words: coronavirus pandemic, economy, birth rate, renewable energy sources, export revenues, GDP.


DIGITAL ECONOMY AND THE NEED TO MODERNIZE FIBER-OPTIC TRANSMISSION NETWORKS IN RUSSIA DURING THE PERIOD OF 2020-2030

Abstract. Domestic economy is just entering the process of digital transformation which is characterized by a huge growth of data volume and the need to transmit it via telecommunication networks. Some new trends can be understood right today based on the analysis of global experience. The aim of this article is to determine the reasons for the radical change in the requirements for fiber optic backbone networks in the digital economy era and to estimate the necessity of their modernization in Russia during the period up to 2030.

The article is based on the report made at the general meeting of Electrocable Association in March 2021, Moscow region.

Key words: digital economy, data processing center (DPC), fiber optic communication line (FOCL), digital service provider, fiber optic backbone infrastructure, modernization, optical fiber.


OUTSOURCING IS THE MODERN MECHANISM OF CORPORATE DEVELOPMENT!

Abstract. The article deals with the issues of outsourcing in the real sector of economy. The place and role of outsourcing in the corporate development plan is determined, the advantages of outsourcing under the current conditions and the negative aspects of its implementation are shown. The specific features of digitalization in the outsourcing procedures are considered.

Key words: outsourcing, development strategy, optimality of outsourcing functions.


RUSSIAN OIL AND GAS SECTOR ON THE EVE OF THE WORLD ENERGY TRANSITION

Abstract. The Russian oil and gas industry is in a difficult position, experiencing pressure from both the pandemic and the prospects of falling demand for fossil fuels in the face of the world economy transition to carbon-free development. Domestic companies, unlike their foreign counterparts, do not demonstrate readiness for a "green transition". The obvious degradation of quality of the reserves, the fiscal instability, the structural bias in favor of the public sector and Russia's participation in the OPEC+ deal provide no stimuli for the industry revival. The prospects of the gas sector are also doubtful in view of its poor hydrogen development potential.

Key words: oil and gas industry, decarbonization, oil, gas, natural gas well, oil well, hydrogen energy, energy transition.


DEMAGNETIZATION OF FERROMAGNETIC OBJECTS BY A SYSTEM USING CABLES BASED ON HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS

Abstract. Demagnetization is the process of decreasing the magnetization of a ferromagnetic mass by applying an external magnetic field that alternately changes its sign. In many cases, it is required to reduce the magnetization of an object to the values of the Earth's magnetic field. The maximum demagnetizing field generated can be only a few mT (100–200 Gs), but due to the large size of the object (for example, the hull of a ship), a high electric current will need to be applied to create a sufficient magnetic field in the required area. Therefore, currently existing demagnetization systems are multi-ton coils of heavy copper electrical cables. The use of cables based on high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) in demagnetization systems allows significant weight savings compared to demagnetization systems based on copper coils. Our proposed design of the HTSC cable, which takes into account the "effect of the longitudinal magnetic field", makes it possible to further reduce the cost of the HTSC material. This paper presents the results of further optimization of such a cable for demagnetization systems, taking into account the real dependences of the critical current of second-generation HTSC tapes. In addition, the results of an experiment on demagnetizing a model steel object in a model of a system based on HTSC cables designed for demagnetizing small objects are presented.

Key words: HTSC cable, demagnetization, longitudinal magnetic field.


PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF ALUMINUM WIRES IN THE ON-BOARD CABLE SYSTEM OF A SPACECRAFT

Abstract. The article deals with the practical aspects of the use of new type aluminum wires in the on-board DC harness of the spacecraft power supply system. The results of work on the analysis and adjustment of technological processes for the new type wire installation are presented. Optimal conditions for the production of electrical connections by soldering or mechanical crimping are determined. It is shown that the use of lighter wires to reduce the on-board DC harness weight while retaining the required level of reliability is technically feasible. The quality and reliability of the electrical connections are confirmed by a set of tests simulating the actual operating conditions of the spacecraft in the final orbit.

Key words: on-board DC harness, on-board wires, spacecraft, weight reduction, testing, crimped and soldered electrical connections, reliability. 


MODERN SHIPBOARD CABLES

Abstract. In recent times the shipbuilders and designers have been assigned the task of increasing the domestic market share in the global shipbuilding industry. However most of the projects under construction still use cable products that were developed more than 40 years ago, and no longer meet the present-day requirements of world shipbuilding. In order to solve this problem, JSC “SPO “Arktika” has developed and JSC “Expokabel” has introduced mass production of new generation shipboard cables that are direct competitors of the products manufactured by the leading world companies.

Key words: shipbuilding, modern technologies, operation, safety, shipboard electrical equipment, shipboard cables, fire-resistant cables, halogen-free cables, cable products, domestic shipbuilding, technical level, JSC “Expokabel”, modernization, production, customer orientation, efficiency.


THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTRINSIC MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY OF MULTI-LAYER DC HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING CABLES

Abstract. The article presents a study of the influence of the intrinsic magnetic field on the critical current, and, consequently, on the current-carrying capacity of multi-layer DC power cables based on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. An HTS cable with a four-layer current-carrying element operating at a temperature of 77 K is analyzed in detail. The critical current in each layer of the DC HTS cable is measured, calculations are performed, in which the influence of the intrinsic magnetic field on the total critical current of the cables is taken into account. The expediency of increasing the number of layers in the HTS cable in order to increase their current carrying capacity is analyzed.

Key words: DC HTS cable, cable current-carrying capacity, layers in HTS cable, magnetic field.


INFLUENCE OF IMPURITY ELEMENTS IN THE COPPER WIRE ROD OF JSC “URALELECTROMED” ON ITS ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE

Abstract. In the presented work the influence of impurity elements in the 8-mm КМ М001 copper wire rod of JSC “Uralelectromed” on the specific electrical resistance is estimated. Using the regression analysis method with a high coefficient of determination of 0.98 the authors determined the impact on the electrical resistivity of the following elements in decreasing order: bismuth, cobalt, tin, selenium and antimony. The high purity of copper in the JSC “Uralelectromed” wire rod is shown. The range of impurities in the wire rod is very narrow, which indicates that its chemical composition is stable, the content of impurities (with the exception of specially added oxygen) is below the requirements of      GOST R 53803–2010.

It was tentatively determined that in order to obtain the electrical resistivity value of less than 0.01697 Ohms×m×10-6, the chemical composition of the wire rod should contain: selenium – less than 0.27×10-4 %, tellurium –  less than 0.07×10-4 %, lead – less than 0.26×10-4 %, antimony – less than 1.65×10-4 %, arsenic – less than 0.54×10-4 %, oxygen – less than 197×10-4 %. Due to the low content of impurities and stable characteristics of the JSC “Uralelectromed” wire rod, it is used for the production of cable products with increased requirements for electrical characteristics (winding wires, micron drawing, etc.).

Key words: electrical resistivity, regression analysis method, content of impurities, copper wire rod, methods of impurity analysis.


NEW STANDARD FOR INSTALLATION CABLES USED FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN EXPLOSION HAZARD ZONES

Abstract. The history of development of installation cables is described, starting from their use for fixed inter-instrument installation and ending with modern automation cables designed to collect technological parameters of equipment distributed throughout the industrial production area, and feedback with actuators for the purpose of centralized production management. GOST R 59387-2021 "Installation cables for use in electrical installations in explosion hazardous zones, including for underground mines. General technical specifications" was developed, which contains requirements directly related to installation cables laid in explosive areas.

The paper presents the designs of cables that are used in production areas with hazardous zones where gaseous explosive substances, combustible dust and particles can presumably appear.  The requirements are given for cables designed for connection to electrical equipment with various types of explosion protection systems, especially the explosion protection of "spark-proof electric circuit “i" type.

Key words: explosion hazard areas, explosion protection systems, spark-proof electric circuit “i”, installation cables for electrical installations in explosion hazard areas.


DOI 10.52350/2072215Х_2021_5_27

THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS FACTORS ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF THE INNER SURFACE OF A HIGH-VOLTAGE JOINT. (REVIEW)

Abstract. The problem of improving the dielectric strength of insulation systems always remains relevant. The increase of the dielectric strength leads to a number of benefits: reduction of the overall dimensions of the insulation system, decrease of the resources spent on the insulation production, improvement of reliability and stability in nominal or emergency operating modes. The electric insulation system made of a pair of dissimilar materials having different properties and parameters of properties and working together should be studied closely to determine the interaction of the materials in the zone of their contact. Examples of such type insulation systems: the paper-oil insulation of transformer windings or the insulation of cable current-carrying conductors, the insulation of high-voltage leads to gas insulated switchgear comprising SF6 gas and epoxy resin, as well as the reinforced insulation system of cable accessories at the point of contact with the cable insulation.

The problem of improvement of the dielectric strength of the inner surface of a high-voltage joint is under active study, which is confirmed by the number of relevant publications giving consideration to the factors that lead to a breakdown, as well as other aspects that influence the selection of materials and help to provide additional electrical protection of the zone under consideration.

The article gives a review of the cable joint design and the specific installation features that can cause an electric breakdown of the cable joint insulation. The critical zone of the high-voltage joint which is considered to be its weak point is pointed out and the ways to improve the dielectric strength of this zone are shown.

Key words: cable accessories, cable joint, dielectric strength, electric insulation, high-voltage cables, cable materials.


ANALYSIS OF THE OSCILATIONS OF FIBER OPTIC CABLES INSTALLED IN TUNNELS, UNDER SEISMIC IMPACTS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SPECIFIC CABLE ATTACHMENT ON TRANSMISSION POLES

Abstract. The article presents the calculation results of oscillations of fiber optic cables installed in tunnels and ducts or other confined spaces under seismic impacts.

The cable attachment points subjected to transverse vibrations under the action of inertial forces during earthquakes are considered as different boundary conditions. After the calculation of the optical cable response to the seismic impact the maximum displacement and acceleration amplitudes along the cable length are determined.

Key words: overhead lines of optical communication cables, joint oscillations of conductors and transmission poles, dynamic interaction, vibration frequency calculation.


FUSED FIBER OPTIC SPLITTERS: BICONIC TRANSITIONS

Abstract. The article deals with the geometric parameters of biconic transitions in optical fibers, as well as the dependence of the distribution of optical radiation in biconic transitions of optical fibers complying with specifications G.652D, G.657A1, G.657A2, G.657B3 on the value of the optical fiber stretching.

Key words: optical communication networks, optical fiber, fused optical splitters, biconic optical splitters, biconic transitions in optical fibers.


ANALYSIS OF THE BROADBAND ACCESS TECHNILOGIES BASED ON MULTI-PAIR LAN CABLES AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THEM

Abstract. The analysis of broadband access technologies based on multi-pair LAN cables is presented. It is shown that the developed set of measures related to the technology of cable core twisting and application of a screen and a protective polymer sheath makes it possible to ensure the compliance with the norms for the electrical characteristics of transmission and mutual influences of LAN cables that meet the requirements for category 5e.

Key words: multi-pair LAN cables, broadband access, xDSL technology, cable core twisting, twisting machines, screen, JSC “Samara Cable Company”.

CABLE RUBBERS. CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

Abstract. The article describes the milestones of the cable industry development in the USSR, and afterwards in Russia. Consideration is given to the experience of using rubbers in cable constructions and to the development of rubber processing technology in the 20st century at the cable plants. Special attention is devoted to the promising rubber mixing technology with the Sibkabel plant production (Tomsk) taken as an example. Information about the cable rubber consumption volumes and the expected consumption of rubber types used is given.

Key words: cable rubbers, rubber mixing, vulcanization, cable rubber types, insulation, sheath, ethylene propylene rubber.


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MEDIUM-VOLTAGE CABLE INSULATIONS BASED ON POLYPROPYLENE, CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE AND ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE RUBBER

Abstract. The comparative data previously obtained by the authors for the properties of medium-voltage (MV) cable insulations based on ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) are briefly summarized.

The results of the long-term electrochemical and thermal ageing tests of EPR and XLPE insulated cables are given; it is shown that the XLPE insulation possesses higher residual dielectric strength in both cases.

The second part of this article is focused on the study of three polypropylene-based insulating materials in comparison with the water tree retardant XLPE. The aim of the study is to evaluate the basic properties of the PP insulation in a virgin state, as well as its resistance to electrochemical and thermal ageing. It is shown that the initial values of the PP electrical and mechanical properties are at a high level. However, the PP-compounds are more susceptible to thermal ageing than the XLPE materials. On the whole the tested PP materials also exhibit satisfactory resistance to water treeing, being slightly inferior to XLPE. It is stated that the potential place of the medium-voltage PP insulating systems in the Russian market can be evaluated only after full-scale long-term cable tests for resistance to different forms of ageing are carried out.

Key words: ethylene propylene rubber, water tree retardant cross-linked polyethylene, polypropylene, test, electrochemical ageing, thermal ageing


THE INFLUENCE OF POLYPROPYLENE ADDITION TO POLYETHYLENE INSULATION ON ITS RESISTANCE TO THERMAL OXIDATION

Abstract. The case of abnormally fast oxidation of signal cable polyethylene (PE) insulation during its thermal ageing test is considered. According to the authors’ opinion the presence of small amount of polypropylene (PP) in the material is responsible for this phenomenon – PP initiates and accelerates the PE oxidation. DSC and micro-FTIR have been used as analytical methods. The initial stage of the fast oxidation is localized in the polymer volume. The visually observed areas of highly oxidized PE have dimensions starting from tens of microns.

Key words: polyethylene, polypropylene, oxidation, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Fourier Transfer Infrared Microspectroscopy


THE DEPENDENCE OF THE POLYMERIZATION DEGREE OF A DOUBLE-LAYER UV-CURABLE PRIMARY PROTECTIVE COATING OF AN OPTICAL FIBER ON THE OPERATING REGIMES OF ITS DRAWING

Abstract. The drawing tower operating regimes are determined for the application of a double-layer primary protective coating from the developed compositions based on UV-curable acrylates, namely: the speed of extraction, the power of UV lamps and the volume of nitrogen supply to them.

Key words: optical fibers, primary coatings, optical fiber drawing, UV-curing


THE REALITY AND MYTHS OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN THE RUSSIAN CABLE INDUSTRY

Abstract. The article deals with the analysis of domestic and imported materials consumption in the cable industry of Russia. It tells about the history of using imported materials in the domestic production. The recent advances in the production of conductor, electrical insulation, construction materials and equipment in Russia are shown. Present day difficulties in the logistics of supply and purchase of materials are noted.

Key words: import substitution, conductor materials, insulation materials, equipment, spare parts, import, domestic producers, raw components, chemical industry, action plan, development of new insulation materials


INCREASING THE BANDWIDTH RATE OF OPTICAL CABLES WITH THE USE OF MULTICHANNEL FIBERS

Abstract. The problem of increasing the throughput of optical cables for infocommunication networks is discussed. The methods and techniques used to increase the efficiency of complex multiplexing of information traffics in fiber optic cables are studied.

The bandwidth rate of fiber optic cables with multichannel multi-core and multimode optical fibers is estimated.

Key words: optical cable, bandwidth rate/throughput, multichannel optical fibers, multi-core fibers, multimode fibers


ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TELEPHONE CABLES WITH SKIN-FOAM-SKIN POLYETHYLENE INSULATION IN A WIDE FREQUENCY RANGE

Abstract. The results of experimental studies of transmission parameters and mutual influence of a telephone cable with TPppPng(A)-HF 100×2×0.5 skin-foam-skin polyethylene insulation in the frequency range up to 16 MHz are presented. It is shown that the low-frequency characteristics of the skin-foam-skin insulated cable fully comply with the category 5e LAN cable standards, and the characteristics of mutual interference at the near and far ends are by 10–15 dB higher than the standard values for a Category 3 LAN cable. Recommendations for the cable use are given.

Key words: telephone cable, skin-foam-skin insulation, transmission parameters, characteristics of mutual interference


THE VALUE OF SENSE IS IN INNOVATION AT THE STAGE OF PARADIGM SHIFT

Abstract. The article examines the essence of innovation as a social phenomenon from the viewpoint of its meaning and content as an engineering paradigm which is based on the reflection of various external environment aspects on the conscious activity of the society. The value of the innovation sense is revealed and shown with regard to the value for the customer. A model of meanings and values interrelation is formed, and the evolution of approaches to the innovation models is shown. The article systematizes the challenges and prerequisites for the formation of future innovations, and outlines their logical interrelation. Considerations about the consequences of digitalization are also presented.

Key words: innovation process, conformation, digitalization, commodity economics, utility economics, digital platform, digital flow, subconscious influence